J Caring Sci. 2018;7(2):67-74.
doi: 10.15171/jcs.2018.011
  Abstract View: 120
  PDF Download: 308

Original Research

Lipohypertrophy in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Prevalence and Risk Factors  

Hamdiye Arda Sürücü 1 * , Hatice OKurArslan 2 ORCiD

1 Internal Medicine Nursing, Ataturk School of Health, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey
2 Diabetes Nursing, Çankırı Private Karatekin Hospital-Diabetes Education and Monitoring Policlinic, Çankırı, Turkey


Introduction: As well as its negative effect on the subcutaneous tissues, lipohypertrophy has negative effects on clinical data. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of lipohypertrophy, risk factors and perceived barriers preventing rotation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Diabetes Education Center and Endocrine and Metabolism Clinic of a university hospital and Diabetes Education and Monitoring Center in a private hospital in Turkey between June 2016- April 2017. The inclusion criteria were as follows; undergoing at least one year of insulin therapy, injecting insulin pens or syringes themselves, being over 18 years of age, making regular injection of insulin and being a patient with type 2 diabetes. Introductory information form was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis with SPSS version 16.0. Results: Factors influencing lipohypertrophy development were determined as follows; healthcare personnel who provide insulin education, duration of diabetes, the number of injection administered daily, needle length, the number of injection sites, insulin types, injection site rotation and intra-site rotation and needle exchange frequency. In addition, the prevalence of lipohypertrophy was found to be higher in patients with hypoglycemia, unexplained hypoglycemia, and those with high BMI and A1C. Conclusion: It is recommended that diabetes education should be provided by the diabetes specialist nurses who have diabetes-specific certifications and / or education and who can provide full-time education. Randomized controlled interventional studies investigating how to prevent the lipohypertrophy development are also needed.
First name
Last name
Email address
Security code

Submitted: 18 Oct 2017
Revised: 04 Feb 2018
Accepted: 25 Apr 2018
First published online: 25 Apr 2018
EndNote EndNote

(Enw Format - Win & Mac)

BibTeX BibTeX

(Bib Format - Win & Mac)

Bookends Bookends

(Ris Format - Mac only)

EasyBib EasyBib

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Medlars Medlars

(Txt Format - Win & Mac)

Mendeley Web Mendeley Web
Mendeley Mendeley

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Papers Papers

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

ProCite ProCite

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Reference Manager Reference Manager

(Ris Format - Win only)

Refworks Refworks

(Refworks Format - Win & Mac)

Zotero Zotero

(Ris Format - FireFox Plugin)