J Caring Sci. 2019;8(4): 231-239.
doi: 10.15171/jcs.2019.033
PMID: 31915626
PMCID: PMC6942647
  Abstract View: 96
  PDF Download: 109

Original Research

Men's Confrontation with Pregnancy from Women's Point of View: an Ethno Phenomenological Approach

Fatemeh Erfanian Arghavaian 1 ORCID logo, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari 1 * ORCID logo, Abbas Heydari 2 ORCID logo, Mohsen Noghani Dokht Bahmani 3 ORCID logo

1 Department of Midwifery, Evidence-Based Care Research Centre, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing, Evidence- Based Care Research Center, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Social Science, Faculty of Literature and Humanity, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: In providing pregnancy services, particular attention is given to the mother and her infant and comparatively less consideration is paid to men’s role. This study aimed to explore how Iranian men are confronted with pregnancy from pregnant women’s point of view.

Methods: This study was conducted, using an ethno-phenomenological approach. 25 Pregnant women were recruited via purposeful sampling from health centers, hospitals, and private obstetric clinics in Mashhad, Iran. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n=25), vignettes, (n=13) as well as observation were used for data collection. The data were organized with MAXQDA software version 10 and analyzed, using van Manen descriptive- interpretive phenomenological approach.

Results: The main theme which emerged was: "adaptation, skillfulness and self-actualization of man in confrontation with pregnancy". This was derived from two themes: 1) "spouse's emotional engagement" subthemes spouse’s emotional confrontation with pregnancy occurrence, man's sentimentality following being an expectant father, husband`s confrontation with wife's motherhood, man's emotional excitement, seeing the symptoms of fetal survival, husband's gender orientation and 2)"Concentration, vigilance and active efforts of spouse during pregnancy" subthemes managing wife towards successful pregnancy, efforts to acquire paternal skills and pregnancy as an issue to expand spouse's mental horizons.

Conclusion: Besides an overwhelming sense of emotion, men tend to be supportive in managing successful pregnancy. As an opportunity window pregnancy seems to develop thinking, vision and horizons of life among men and increases their responsibility. By promoting male participation in pregnancy, important steps could be taken to improve maternal and infant health using spouses` support approach.

Keywords: Pregnancy, Pregnant women, Men
Citation: Erfanian Arghavanian F, Latifnejad Roudsari R, Heydari A, Noghani Dokht Bahmani M. Men's confrontation with pregnancy from women's point of view: an ethno phenomenological approach. J Caring Sci 2019; 8 (4): 231-9. doi:10.15171/jcs.2019.033
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Submitted: 02 Jul 2018
Accepted: 24 Dec 2018
ePublished: 01 Dec 2019
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